A Brief Guide to Russia


Russia is the world’s largest country, covering a vast expanse of northern Asia and Eastern Europe. In the early twenty-first century, it emerged as a powerful power. Its economy is primarily driven by natural resources such as oil and natural gas. There are more than one hundred ethnic groups in Russia, but the majority are ethnic Russians.

The country spans an area of 17,075,400 square miles. Two-fifths of it is in Western Russia, where low hills and fertile plains dominate. In Eastern Russia, mountainous terrain dominates.

Approximately half of the land is covered by forest. Winters are long and cold. Permafrost covers four million square miles. This results in abundant water sources. As such, settlement in this region is difficult.

Although a number of localities offer medical care, it is below Western standards. Travelers have reported cases of diphtheria, hepatitis A, and typhoid. However, there are few outbreaks of cholera or tuberculosis.

One of the largest cities in Russia is Moscow. It is the country’s economic and cultural centre. Moscow is surrounded by a thick network of protected forests and marshes. Most of the people living in Moscow are ethnic Russians.

Russia has several languages. Standard Russian is the national language, but there are many different dialects. Ukrainian, Belorussian, and Polish are also among the Slavonic language families.

Russians share diverse religious and cultural traditions. Russians use the Cyrillic alphabet, which is similar to the Latin alphabet.

In the nineteenth century, the Russian monarchy was dominated by a landed aristocracy. Eventually, this monopoly was overthrown and the serfs were given freedom. However, emancipation did not eliminate revolutionary tensions. Instead, it brought a middle class to the city, stimulating industry. During this time, a new tax was levied on peasants for their lifetimes.

Despite its wealth, Russia has endured a grim history. The country’s rulers had a conscious attempt to Westernize the country. But the tsars often remained uneasy about their relationship with the West.

Russia’s climate can be very harsh. Summers range from warm in the steppe to cool in the Arctic. In the northern part of the country, permafrost occurs in the forest-tundra zone. Despite its vast size, Russia’s climate is extreme. Because of this, winters are often frigid.

Russia’s economy is primarily based on the manufacturing and oil and natural gas industries. Other top industries include fishing and forestry. The country also has significant reserves of precious metals and oil. Throughout its history, Russia has contributed to science and technology.

Russia’s major contributions to science include a satellite that was the first artificial satellite in outer space. Additionally, its vast natural resources have made it a leader in the energy industry. Russia has been a pillar of the United Nations Security Council.

With more than a dozen countries sharing its borders, Russia is a huge and diverse country. Its economy is one of the world’s largest. While Russia shares maritime borders with Japan and the United States, it shares land boundaries with more than a dozen countries.