After losing a significant amount of GDP in 2020 due to the Covid-19 pandemic and the conflict in the Donbas region, Ukraine has largely recovered from its economic crisis. There have been several notable achievements in foreign policy, including support for EU anti-Russia sanctions and a visa-free regime with European Union countries. Within the country, the new government is also trying to achieve better recognition of the difficult tasks it has to complete. The old local authorities were not eager to see changes and have partially been cleansed of anti-Maidan activists.
During the 19th century, Ukraine experienced a mass exodus of Ukrainian intellectuals as a result of Russian repression. The mass exodus of Ukrainian intellectuals from the eastern Ukraine was driven by a desire to escape Russian persecution. Moreover, many of these Ukrainian intellectuals later crossed the border into the Russian Empire and became members of the Russian Orthodox Church. The result of this situation was the development of religious divisions within the Ukrainian Orthodox Church. These divisions later led to schisms.
In the early 16th century, the Cossacks led a rebellion against the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. This sparked the era of Ruin and Deluge, which weakened the foundations of the Commonwealth. The Cossack state was at a time of three-sided rivalry with the Russian Empire, the Tatars in the south and the Commonwealth of Poland. After the 1648 Cossack uprising, the Cossacks formed the Zaporizhian Sich and the Cossack ‘Hetmanate’. After 1648, the Ottoman Turks began to gain control of the western part of the country, extending their rule into the region.
The Ukraine crisis has changed the national identity of the country and fueled a strong anti-Russian animus. According to a recent poll, conducted by Rating Group Ukraine, 57 percent of Ukrainians expressed very cold feelings toward Russia, while only 17 percent proclaimed a warm attitude toward the country. These findings suggest that Ukraine has a long way to go before it achieves stability. It will take a long time to rebuild trust in the country, which once stood in the way of progress and prosperity.
The early history of Ukraine is complex. The country was ruled by Poland-Lithuania for 400 years, and several Slavic tribes populated the region. The city of Kyiv became the capital of Kievan Rus’, which included present-day Ukraine. The Prince of Kyiv, a member of the Kievan Rus, invaded the Byzantine Empire in 941 AD and was defeated in the Rus’-Byzantine War.
The new law also included an increase in the punishment for crimes committed by individuals. The new law strengthened provisions for the prosecution of domestic violence, extending the statute of limitation for domestic violence to six months. Furthermore, the new law introduced new penalties for committing crimes against women, including imprisonment for up to 10 days and compulsory labour. However, the investigation into the case of Lieutenant Valeria Sikal failed to result in the conviction of those responsible. At the end of the year, the case is still under investigation.