Located in the Northern Hemisphere, Russia covers almost half of the world’s land area. It is situated in Eastern and North Asia, as well as part of Europe. It has a long coastline, ranging from the Black Sea to the Arctic Ocean. It is also bordered by Mongolia, China, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. Its population is predominantly ethnic Russian. There are 120 distinct ethnic groups within Russia. There are also dozens of languages spoken. Most of the population is concentrated in the fertile region around Moscow.
The Russian Federation is a federation that stretches across much of the northern portion of the supercontinent of Eurasia. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. It has significant oil, gas, and mineral deposits. It is also a major energy supplier to Europe. It is considered a superpower. It is also the largest country in the world.
Russia is divided into two major geographic regions, western and eastern. The west is mostly continental, with low hills and lowland plains. The eastern part is mountainous. It is home to major lakes such as Lake Baikal and Lake Ladoga. It has major forests and rivers. The Volga River runs through the east. It is the longest river in Europe.
The Russian Federation covers a land area of 17,075,400 square miles. Its maximum east-west length is 5,600 miles. The country’s climate ranges from cool in the Black Sea to frigid in Siberia. The winters are short, with summers varying from warm in the steppe to cold in the Arctic coast. The climatic extremes are reflected in the diversity of its landforms. There are also large areas of permafrost. It is estimated that there is about four million square miles of permafrost. It makes it difficult to settle in the region.
The climate in the north is continental. The southern portion is dominated by the steppes. The forest zone covers most of the country, except for the tundra. The climates of European and Asian Russia are continental, but the tundra is in the northern coast. The climates vary in a short period of time, with autumn and spring being the most significant changes.
In addition to the Arctic Ocean, Russia shares borders with the Pacific, the Black Sea, the Caspian Sea, and the Bering Sea. It is also close to China, Mongolia, and Turkey. Its port of Novorossiysk is the most important trade center for Central Asia. It is also home to important oil, gas, and timber deposits.
The federation is home to more than 120 ethnic groups. The Russian government engages in smear campaigns against independent groups, fines them, and sometimes arrests them. It also engages in censorship and crackdowns on critical media. The country has many languages and diverse religious and cultural traditions.
The Russian Federation is considered the prime adversary of NATO, especially in southeastern Europe and the Black Sea. Russia is investing in new infrastructure to protect its Black Sea trade corridor. It is also creating alternative routes to skirt Ukraine. Its acceptance by NATO has strengthened calls for a more robust Western strategy towards Russia.