Russia is a vast country with many different terrains, climates, and ethnic groups. It has one of the world’s largest economies and is rich in natural resources such as oil, gas and gold.
The country has a very diverse population and it is dominated by the Russian people but there are 120 other ethnic groups living in Russia who speak different languages and follow their own cultural traditions. The majority of the Russian people live in the European part of the country, and the capital city of Moscow is the most densely populated area.
There are many religious traditions in Russia and the Eastern Orthodox Church is the largest religion. The most important Orthodox festival is the eve of Lent, known as maslenitsa or butter festival. During this period, people eat pancakes and break holes in frozen lakes and rivers to celebrate.
Russians are very proud of their history and their culture. They have a long and complicated past, which has been shaped by their unique environment, the Russian Empire, czars and revolutions. The czars tried to westernize their culture and the revolution in 1917 saw the Bolsheviks take over, changing Russia’s government from a monarchy to a communist regime.
This political shift had profound effects on Russian society. The old aristocracy was replaced by the working class, and a socialist state was established. This was a major change for Russia, as it had been ruled by czars and emperors for centuries.
Despite the new government, there were still many problems within Russia. The country’s economy suffered from poor management, and it was not able to provide for the needs of its population. This led to a number of social unrests, including mass riots and the Russian Civil War in 1918-1921.
The Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, and the country was split into various republics. Some of them, such as Crimea, became independent states, while others continued to be part of the Russian Federation.
There are many different kinds of climates in Russia, and some areas experience harsh, cold winters. Northern areas of the country border the Arctic Ocean, and icy air masses from the Arctic move south into Russia each winter. This causes severe weather in some parts of the country and can be deadly for animals, fish and other wildlife.
Type D (continental) climates characterize much of the country, and these tend to be hot and dry in summer and cool and wet in winter. This is because land in the center of a continent, far from the moderating effects of oceans, tends to warm up quickly in the summer and cool down rapidly in the winter.
Mountains are a prominent feature of the landscape in Russia. The Ural Mountains are the highest and most extensive mountains in Russia, with many peaks exceeding 3,000 metres (9,840 feet). The Caucasus Mountains separate Russia from southwest Asia and the volcanic highlands of Kamchatka Peninsula are located in the east.
The vast expanse of Russia is home to many different species and varieties of plants and animals. Some of these are rare and endangered, such as the white rhinoceros. The country has an extensive network of wildlife parks and reserves, where visitors can see and learn about the Russian wild life. The country also has many museums and archaeological sites.