Ethnic Russians make up most of the population in Russia. The country has more than 100 different ethnic groups, and its rich history and culture have inspired major cultural contributions, including the launch of the first artificial satellite into space and the first spacewalk. Famous authors include Aleksandr Pushkin, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, and Leo Tolstoy, while Boris Pasternak is often associated with modern independence.
The first Tsar of Russia, Ivan the Terrible, ruled between the fourteenth and twentieth centuries. Russia’s expansion was unprecedented. Artist Albrecht Adam painted Napoleon’s retreat from Moscow in 1851. Lenin, Trotsky, and Kamenev motivated Soviet troops to fight in the Soviet-Polish War, which ended with the Soviet victory over the German army. In 1945, Yalta Conference was held, during which the “Big Three” (William Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Joseph Stalin) agreed to peace in Europe and Asia. In 1986, Mikhachev met with President Reagan, who later became Russia’s first ever U.S. President.
Although most Russians are ethnic Russians, the country is composed of more than 120 ethnic groups. The country’s population density is among the highest in the world, with almost eight people per square kilometer. This population density is greatest in the European part of the country, particularly in the fertile region around Moscow. The country’s cultural and economic centre, St. Petersburg, was previously known as Leningrad, and is one of the most beautiful cities in the world.
Aside from being close to the equator, Russia has a diverse range of physical environments. There are alpine tundras, steppes, and mountains. Most of Russia has Type D climates, which characterizes large landmasses without oceans. Land in the middle of a continent tends to warm up quickly in the summer and cool off quickly in the winter. As Russia’s northern boundary borders the Arctic Ocean, it is often affected by frigid air masses that sweep across the country during winter.
Geographically, the country is highly varied, with different regions with very different characteristics. The Ural Mountains, which straddle the border between Europe and Asia, provide a high level of relief. These mountains are considered the boundary between Europe and Asia, and therefore represent a challenge to modern civilization. The Caucasus Mountains meanwhile bridge the gap between the Black and Caspian seas. While some regions of Russia are mountainous and others are low-lying, they are generally less rugged than the rest of the country.
Geographically, Russia occupies a huge area, covering almost one eighth of the world’s landmass. The landmass of Russia is about the size of South America, and the population is relatively small – most people live in the south, around Moscow and Saint Petersburg. Russia has eleven time zones and stretches from Saint Petersburg on the Baltic Sea to Vladivostok on the Pacific coast. The country also includes the discontinuous territory of Kaliningrad.
Despite its huge size, Russia does not have a long growing season. Despite its vast area, it has few ice-free ports. The largest of these is Vladivostok on the Pacific Ocean, but much of the region is covered in ice throughout the year, making transportation impossible. Vladivostok recently became connected to the rest of Russia by a highway, making it easy to transport goods and people in the region.