The war in Ukraine has left thousands dead, whole cities in rubble, and 13 million people displaced. Vladimir Putin launched the war with the intention of overrunning the country, deposing Ukraine’s government, and blocking its path to Nato membership. But after a month of failed attempts, Putin abandoned his goal of capturing Kyiv and turned his attention to the east and south of the country.
Ukraine is rich in natural resources. It is home to large concentrations of iron ore, manganese, petroleum, salt, sulfur, and bauxite. Ukraine’s natural resources are used for a variety of industrial processes, and the country is a hub for international trade. Ukraine’s rivers are a vital source of power.
Ukraine has fertile soils. Two-thirds of its land area is covered in chernozems, which are among the richest soils in the world. Chernozems in Ukraine can be broadly classified into three main types. The deep chernozems are the richest and have a high humus content. In contrast, the prairie chernozems are thinner and have less humus.
Ukraine is a country located in eastern Europe and near the Black Sea. Its terrain is flat, except for the Crimean Peninsula and the Black Sea, which are mountainous regions. Ukraine is also home to the Carpathians, which span Central and Eastern Europe. The highest mountain in Ukraine is Mount Hoverla. The Crimean Mountains are 150 km long and extend up the coastline of the Black Sea.
The OECD has been working closely with Ukraine since 1991 on improving its governance and economic development. In 2014, the two sides signed a Memorandum of Understanding for Strengthening Co-operation, which identifies specific challenges facing the Ukrainian economy and public policy. Through its multidisciplinary expertise and cross-country data analysis, the OECD supports Ukraine’s efforts to reform its economy and society.
Ukraine has a rich variety of rivers. Most of the major rivers flow into the Black Sea or the Sea of Azov. The Dnieper River, which is the longest, drains nearly half of Ukraine and has numerous tributaries. The Dnieper, which rises in Russia and flows south, empties into the Black Sea at Kherson.
The climate of Ukraine is characterized by its uneven precipitation. The wettest months are June and February, and the coldest month is late November. Snowfall varies from a few inches in the steppe region to several feet in the Carpathians. Although some regions of the country experience more snowfall than others, most areas receive only 16 to 24 inches annually.
The Russian-Ukrainian conflict is largely driven by competing interpretations of history. Both sides have used historical arguments to justify their actions. For example, Russian officials have greatly exaggerated the historic connection between Crimea and Russia. This has played a significant role in the current Russian policy towards Ukraine.