Ukraine is one of the most fertile countries in the world, and its soils are a major factor in this. Two-thirds of the country’s land is covered by chernozems, which are soils rich in humus. There are three basic types of chernozems in Ukraine: deep, prairie, and limy. The deep chernozems are the richest, while the prairie chernozems are thinner and contain less humus.
In the late 1600s, the Ukrainians lost control of their land to the Russian Empire. This led to a series of civil wars among the Cossacks. These wars led to the liquidation of the Cossack institutions and the collapse of the Zaporizhian Sich. After this, the rest of the modern-day Ukraine was annexed by the Russian Empire.
In February 2022, Russia deployed tens of thousands of soldiers along its border with Ukraine and Belarus. It conducted military exercises in Ukraine and announced that it would invade the country. Two hundred thousand Russian troops crossed into Ukraine from three directions and tried to seize major cities, including Kyiv. As of this writing, the Ukrainian government faces many challenges, but policy tools from the OECD can help rebuild the digital space in Ukraine.
The OECD and Ukraine have worked together since 1991, aiming to improve governance and economic development in the country. A Memorandum of Understanding for Strengthening Co-operation between the two organizations was signed in 2014. Through this agreement, OECD experts can provide support to Ukraine’s reform efforts. The 38-member OECD Council condemns Russia’s aggressive action against Ukraine.
Ukraine’s climate is varied, with maximum precipitation in June and lowest precipitation in February. The country also receives snow, which usually falls in late November. Snowfall can range from a few inches in the steppe regions to several feet in the Carpathians. The rest of the country receives between 16 and 24 inches of precipitation a year.
In 1986, a nuclear power plant explosion occurred in Ukraine, which is regarded as the worst nuclear power plant disaster in history. This disaster resulted in more than 4,000 deaths and a hundred thousand injured. Although the Ukraine was a peaceful country for a long time, the explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear plant affected a large area of Ukraine.
Water supply is the main concern in Ukraine, and there are several rivers with navigable waters that flow through the country. The Dnieper River is the longest, draining half of the country. It has many tributaries. And the Dniester River flows into the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov.
The ongoing conflict with Russia has shifted the national identity of the Ukrainian people, creating a strong anti-Russian animus. According to a recent public opinion survey by Rating Group Ukraine, 57 percent of Ukrainians surveyed held a cold attitude toward Russia, with only 17 percent expressing a warm view towards the country.